St Helen’s Church
|St Helen’s Church is the oldest church in Wheathampstead although the exact date of its origins are unknown. The originally wooden Saxon structure pre-dated the Norman conquest, but no records survive which establish the date upon which it was founded. An ambitious scheme of restoration was begun during the early part of the 13th century, the original Saxon church having become dilapidated. The Normans rebuilt and lengthened the chancel in around 1238AD. The east window triple lancets which still survive in the structure today date from this time as do the window and doorway with its dog-tooth decoration on the north side of the sanctuary. However, from the Lincoln Cathedral Registry (Wheathampstead fell with the See of Lincoln up until 1845) the building of the central tower dates to about 1290AD, which is the first definitive date that can be ascribed to the church.St. Helen’s is built of flint rubble, or Totternhoe clunch, with flint facings and limestone dressings. There being no stone of this type in the area, it is thought that the medieval builders used stone from the Midland quarries shipped down the River Ouse to Bedford and from there conveyed by horse and cart along the Roman roads to Wheathampstead.|
The tower is central and dates from about 1290 when the earlier tower needed rebuilding as we know from records in Lincoln Cathedral Registry which tell us of the granting of an indulgence for twenty days to all who contributed to the cost of the work – an early example of the practice so abhorred by Luther in later years.The inventory of 1548 mentioned four bells in the tower. These must have been fairly large, as in 1717 they were recast by Richard Phelps of Whitechapel, with no additional metal, into a ring of six, with a tenor of 17 cwt.In 1885, the second, fourth and fifth bells were recast (probably because they had become cracked) by John Warner and Sons of Cripplegate.
By 1936 all the bells and their fittings were deteriorating, and a decision was taken to have them all recast and rehung in a new timber frame with all new fittings. This work was entrusted to John Taylor and Co. of Loughborough. The tenor of the new ring weighed 14¼ cwt., and the bells were tuned to the key of F major. The dedication of the installation took place in September 1937.
After some repairs to the tower in 1971, the ring was augmented to eight with the addition of two trebles, cast by the same foundry in 1974. The work in the tower of extending the frame and hanging the bells was carried out by voluntary local labour. The new bells were dedicated in March 1974.
To commemorate the induction of the Rev Tom Purchas an entirely new peal was devised and rung in September 1980 – The Wheathampstead Surprise Major.
|© Michael Hollick|
| The Spire
Crowning the tower rises a splendid “broach” spire constructed of wood set at a very steep angle on a square base, and rising to a diminishing octagon. It is clad externally with strips of lead arranged in a herringbone pattern. The present spire is an 1865 reconstruction of an imagined earlier medieval version.
Much rebuilding and additional work was done in the early part of this century. Following the rebuilding of the tower, the south aisle of the nave was added and the south porch in 1350. The west end of the nave was rebuilt with its fine doorway and arch with ball-flower ornament c. 1320. The two-light windows at the aisle west end and the octagonal piers with their moulded capitals and double-hollow-chamfered arches are typical of that date.The north aisle was added later, the recessed tomb in the north wall probably being that of a benefactor of this work.
The north transept or Lamer Chapel was rebuilt about 1330-40 with its large five-light traceried window in the north wall and three-light windows in the east wall. This window has a lowered sill supporting the reredos of the altar to St. Nicholas that used to stand beneath it. This reredos of seven canopied niches with leafy crockets and foliage in the spandrels was found walled up in 1865 and restored then to reveal all the artistry of its itinerant medieval stonemason who did not quite finish the work. Perhaps he was carried off by the Black Death which ravaged the country at the time. Pevsner has described the carving as richer than anything in the county, except for the east end at St. Albans Abbey. He comments, “Much money must have been available and an architect with a good sense of display”. The Macry family were the most likely benefactors of this work, their leopard’s head emblem being discernible in the reredos to those sharp-eyed enough to see it. (The same emblem may be seen on the font, also of early 14th century date.)
The south transept was rebuilt shortly afterwards with its fine east window showing some original fine feather cusping in its tracery and big fleurons. Its south window of four lights with net tracery is of the same date as that in the opposite wall.In the chancel the lancet windows on the north and south walls were replaced and enlarged about 1380, and the small low window at the west end of the south wall of the chancel is of about the same date.The two-storied vestry on the north-east side of the chancel was also added about this time. It was thought by one authority to have housed a hermit or recluse, the upper floor possibly being used as a treasury.
Later Middle Ages
The beautiful canopied piscina, or priest’s wash basin, to the right of the high altar is the most noteworthy contribution of this period. Again the Macry leopard’s head is used in the vaulting of the canopy showing this decorated work to have been the gift of that munificent family.Finally, the medieval improvements to the church were completed with the insertion of the easternmost window in the south aisle with its three cinque-foiled lights.
The Restoration of 1865
Canon Davys found St. Helen’s to be in great decay when he arrived: windows were walled up some feet above the sills, with badly decayed external tracery; the south porch had been filled up level with the ground outside and lengthened to house the fire engine; the north porch had gone altogether, and the only entrance to the nave was by the west door which was covered by a modern porch used to store coal and the sexton’s tools.
The exterior of the whole church, except the tower, was covered with plaster, and the decaying buttresses had been mended with brick, slate or anything else readily available.
Canon Davys aimed to renovate and restore St. Helen’s to its original medieval glory, raising the roofs of nave and chancel to their original pitch, and the spire to its ancient proportions. Transept roofs were repaired and decayed window tracery carefully restored. The plaster was stripped from the outside walls revealing the original flint facing.
Inside, the seating, flooring and ceilings were restored and a Walker organ installed in the chancel.